The main reason of Rayleigh scattering in SOA is due to amplification of short pulse which is produced by large spectral broadening of the pulses. This also reduces the population inversion in the active medium of the laser which can be effectively avoided by the obtaining gain saturation in the SOA amplifier. In this manuscript, we have transmitted 10 Gbps data to 128 users using SOA amplifier. The frequency and power of WDM transmitters has been Taken At 190 Thz And 3.99 Dbm Respectively. To Mitigate The Effect Of Rayleigh Scattering, We Have Reduced The Width Of Pulses As Compare To The Carrier Lifetime.Keywords: Gain Saturation, Rayleigh Scattering, SOA, WDM.
A compact microstrip-fed ultra wideband (UWB) monopole antenna with triple band rejected characteristics is presented in this paper. This antenna is printed on a dielectric substrate and it is fed by a microstrip line. By etching two square slots of different dimensions, in the microstrip feedline, triple band rejections in the WiMAX, WLAN and ITU bands are achieved. The dimensions of these slots in the micristrip feedline can be used to tune the band-notch and bandwidth characteristics. The proposed antenna with the size of 27X30.5 has been constructed and tested. The measured results show that the antenna can operate over the frequency band between 1.1 to 10.4 GHz with a VSWR lower than 2 and provide sufficient rejection band notches for Wimax (3.1-4.3 GHz), WLAN (5-6.3 GHz) and ITU (8-8.8 GHz) and by inserting slots in the microstrip feedline, a better gain pattern is realized.Keywords: Band-notch characteristics, gain patterns, ultrawideband antenna.
Today in this digital world image fusion is the most emerging field in the area of image processing. Its main objective is to combine two or more images in such a way as to retain the most desirable characteristics of each in resultant image. This paper discus a review on some of the image fusion techniques (simple average, simple minimum, simple maximum, PCA, DWT) and literature of the image fusion with wavelet transform is discussed with its merits and demerits. Comparison of all the techniques concludes the improved approach for its future research. In this paper also discussed the application of the image fusion in the various field image quality assessment parameters such as, mean, , entropy standard deviation, root mean squared error, mean squared error Peak signal to noise ratio, signal to noise ratio.Keywords: Image fusion, Magnetic resonance imaging Principle Component Analysis, Computed tomography component; The Discrete Wavelet, Pyramid Decomposition Fusion Algorithm.
The purpose of fault diagnosis in mobile ad hoc network is to have each fault-free node to determine the state of all nodes in the system. In the dissertation work proposes a fault diagnosis algorithm based on the approach for diagnosing nodes in mobile ad hoc network. The proposed diagnosis algorithm is linearly scalable under the assumption that the mobiles may be: (i) crash faulty due to out of range or physical damage and (ii) value faulty due to sending erroneous messages while operating in the field. The parameters such as diagnostic latency and message complexity are used for evaluating the proposed diagnosis algorithm. The purpose of distributed system-level diagnosis is to have each fault-free node determine the state of all nodes of the system. This paper presents a Cluster Based Diagnosis algorithm, which is a fully distributed algorithm that allows every fault-free node to achieve diagnosis in, at most, (log2 N)2 testing rounds. Nodes are mapped into progressively larger logical clusters, so that tests are run in a hierarchical fashion.Keywords: LEACH, WSN, MANET.
A team is only as good as its leader. Today’s challenging and changing world demands from its leaders the capacity to keep learning and relearning, with an open attentive mind full of empathy along with a powerful clear vision which aligns the goals of all the stakeholders concerned.Keywords: Leader, Open, Receptive, River, Sea.
Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol that presents various physiological activities. Resveratrol mainly found in many kinds of plants and their derivatives. Studies have reported that the methylated derivatives of resveratrol show better potential antifungal and anti-proliferative activities than resveratrol. The present review focuses on its physiological activities, such as cancer chemopreventive activity and protective effect on cardiovascular system. It has been reported that the regular consumption of red wine which contain a resveratrol in a sufficient quantity may in part account for the apparent compatibility of a high fat diet with a low incidence of heart diseases.
In the current review, we also focus on the antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of resveratrol and also the role of RNS generation. All of the observed effects of resveratrol, including induction of apoptosis at its higher concentration, are also compatible with its putative chemopreventive and antitumor activity.Keywords: Resveratrol, Polyphenol, Chemopreventive activity, RNS, Antioxidant activity.
The Renewable energy is very important, many type of Renewable energy is Wind Energy, Geothermal Energy, Bio fuel Energy, Solar Energy, Tidal Energy etc. The advantages of Renewable Energy, Project is beneficially in regional areas, less maintenance than traditional generator etc. The main disadvantages of Renewable Energy, Cost of renewable energy is also far in excess of fossil fuel, difficult to generate the quantities of electricity, reduce amount of energy, reliability of supply etc. Application of the Renewable Energy is Biomass briquetting, high efficiency wood burning stoves, micro hydel, solar water heater, air heaters, solar dryers, wind electric generators, solar cookers etc. The renewable energy is very helpful to human life.Keywords: generators, solar cookers etc. The renewable energy is very helpful to human life. Index Terms- Renewable Energy; Wind Energy; Application of Renewable Energy.
In the world of communication, Most of our crucial data is stored in a computer remote and in the most cases we exchange it over a network hence security is a big concern. But it's not just our data transmitting over the network but different types of attacks that can harm our stored data. So Monitoring computer system, its logs (administration logs, security logs, system logs, network logs) and protecting our crucial data is necessary. An intrusion detection system is an application that provides protection from malicious activities or policy violations and generates various rules to defend computer security and this system is relevant for intrusion detection .Keywords: ids, Security, problems, KDD cup, data mining techniques, k-means clustering.
A WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) consists of sensor nodes with restricted power supply along with constrained computational and transmission ability. It is essential to activate the sensor network for an extended period of time in an energy efficient way for getting-together sensed information. Due to the limited transmission as well as ability of performing computations and high compactness of sensor nodes, data packets forwarding takes place in multi-hop data broadcasting. The efficiency of sensor networks robustly depends on the routing protocol used. Routing protocols provide the most advantageous data communication path from sensor nodes to sink to save energy of nodes in the set of connections. This paper presents simulation results of presented clustering algorithms for hierarchical WSN. The simulation results show how the election criteria designed for cluster heads selection such as random selection and nodes with different energy level leaves an impact on the number of cluster heads selected and the set of connections (Network) duration. In this paper, we analyze LEACH protocol. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the comparative efficiency of dissimilar clustering algorithm on network duration and cluster head selection along with failure nodes in the network.Keywords: WSN, Energy Efficiency, Routing, LEACH.
we examine empirical association of dated sovereign security (15 year sovereign. bond index) and interest rate of BRICS countries by using weekly data from 2001 to 2010. We used unit root test to check stationarity of data and it was found that one variable (bond) is stationary at level and other variable (interest) at 1st difference. In this case we used ARDL model, to see is there any short run and long run association between dated sovereign security and the interest rate of BRICS countries. We investigated the results by using Akaike info criterion (AIC) and Schwarz criterion (SIC).out of AIC and SIC we took lowest value for optimum lag selection. Breusch-Godfrey Serial Correlation LM Test was used to check long run association of Govt. dated security and interest rate of BRICS countries, stability diagnostic test was used to check the stability of the data. We also calculated the speed of adjustment or Error Correction Term (ECT) and again with ECT (-1) we checked short run causality by using LM Test, stability diagnostic test and finally we used Wald test to check short run causality of bond lag1, lag2, interest lag1, interest lag2 and it was found that there is short run causality also between bond lag1, lag2 and interest lag1, lag2.Keywords: ARDL model, BRICS countries, Error correction term, interest rate, sovereign bonds.
The main rationale of the research was to discover the how employees of quasi government power distribution companies were utilizing geospatial technologies in their organization and various factors that was associated with level of utilization:
Determine level of accessibility to geospatial technologies
.Determine current utilization of technology by staff in the organization.
Identify factors that facilitated or hindered the GIS current technology adoption and diffusion level.
Research to determine the levels of user intention to adopt the GIS and to investigate the relationship between user acceptance factors and user intention to adopt the GIS.
With the development of technology, numerous number studies has been carried out for acceptance of Information Technology (IT) system in organization , still there is need for study of acceptance of geospatial technology in Indian Power distribution sector.
Now a days, Apache project is working in a new system for social networks and healthcare system that is Apache Spark. It is a fast & expressive cluster computing engine system. It is very compatible with Apache Hadoop. Its version 1.2 just get released in December , it requires very less code work than Hadoop and Map reduce. It works in memory system; it rises to become the most active open source project in Big Data. Apache spark can work on multiple platforms. API supports multiple languages like Java, Python, Scala. It is great for small to medium gigs of data. Spark can be only stack you need i.e. No need to run multiple cluster (Hadoop Cluster, Strom Cluster).Keywords: Big Data, Hadoop, ETL, Apache Spark, Map Reduce.