In the world of Geographic Information Science (GISc) and Remote Sensing (RS) spatial evaluation of a particular area can be interpret in a manageable way. Spatial and temporal monitoring is effectively useful in assessing changes of an area that can be mapped. Main aim of this research is to determine Land Surface Temperature (LST) of Kalat Baluchistan, Pakistan along with the temporal estimation of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) and Moisture Stress Index (MSI). Climatic variations has an impact on vegetation and soil moisture which are catalyzed by LST. These indexes were analyzed and their calculations were performed by using ArcGIS 10.5 and ERDAS 2014 and data acquired was of MODIS. From analysis it has been observed that temperature in Kalat has changed and ultimately soil moisture stress has been increased over the period of 2000 to 2017.
Industries are facing problems of corrosion and wear of mechanical components. This problem was reduced by using Friction Surfacing process is most relevant to the Surface Engineering due to changing of surface properties of required Substrate surfaces in Solid State.Friction Surfacing is referred as a Solid State Technology with increasing surface properties of materials. Different types of material combinations have been coated one on another by using Friction Surfacing process. In this process mainly used materials are Aluminum alloys, Magnesium alloys, Titanium alloys, Steels, Copper, Zinc, Chromium, Nickel, and some other materials. This coated materials are exhibit superior wear resistance and corrosion resistance properties. In Friction Surfacing process Heat Affect Zone is less on comparing with fusion based methods. Because the maximum achieved temperature in Friction Surfacing process is below melting temperature and above recrystallization temperature of the materials which are used in this process. And Solidification Shrinkage of materials does not occur due to absence of melting. So Friction Surfacing process is used in many industries like Aerospace, Automotives, Electronics, Petrochemical, Shipbuilding and other manufacturing industries. In this journal paper Friction Surfaced on AA7075 alloy by AA6061 alloy which is used as Mechtrode and AA7075 alloy is used as Substrate material. Coating thickness and width are based on the some Process Parameters. They are Rotational Speed, Traverse Speed, Axial Force, Material properties, Diameter of Mechtrode. In this paper investigate the effect of Process Parameters on coating thickness, width and some other mechanical properties by changing Rotational Speed, Traverse Speed and maintain Axial Force is constant during whole experiment.
Indian Agriculture sector is waiting for revolutionary change in crop productivity and agriculture related business is looking forward to implement the knowledge of GIS technology. Agriculture and concerned resources had been seen of rare interest of new technical knowledge creators to implement technology in this field though this is main stream line in national level growth of India. There is a widespread belief that information and knowledge are vital for rural agricultural development. To reduce the human dependency on natural resources and to identify an appropriate land for use in suitable crop, it is essential to increase productivity carry out scientific land evaluations. Today, generation of new and various information and knowledge sources need new information and communication channels. Objectives of this study were to develop advertising and promotion of GIS technology based approach for land use suitability assessment which will assist land managers and land use planners to identify areas for suitable crop with physical constraints for a range of nominated land uses. The Researcher would like to focus on advertise and promote of integrating GIS Knowledge Management provide social and national concern for sharing of essential information can help to rural farmers which are handy to use for these techniques, to efficiently get benefited and to avoid risk.
Land use/land cover (LU/LC) mapping was done in Morni Subwatershed, Panchkula, of 2015-16 by using Geographical Information Systems (GISs) and remote sensing technology. These studies were employed by using the Survey of India topographic map 53F/03 and the remote sensing data of LISS IV and WORLDVIEW-2 with 8 band multispectral data. The study area was further classified into seven subwatershed on the basis of field study, geographical conditions, and remote sensing data. Scrub forest is the predominant land cover with in the classification of forest land, accounting about three fourth (77.23%) or 5059.76 ha of total geographical area. Terrace cultivation covered almost 16.26% of total area or 1065.38 ha.
Future contract is a legal agreement between two parties to buy and sell a particular asset of specific quantity at a pre-determined price, on a specified date in future, standardized to facilitate trading on a futures exchange depends on the underlying asset being traded. The computation of variation margins from the perspective of broker and investment management firms differ due to former following actual basis and latter contractual basis. The variation calculation plays a pivotal role in reconciliation of a portfolio and affects the market value and Net asset value of a portfolio. It can create discrepancies resulting a huge impact on the performance of the fund. This paper is an attempt to emphasis the calculations at the practical level to ensure there is smooth flow in operations of an investment banking firm assisting the reconcilers and managers in case of technological failure.
SiC is an excellent structural material for harsh environmental MEMS and NEMS applications due to its outstanding mechanical, thermal properties, high hardness ,low friction coefficient and high wear resistance. It can be a direct replacement to Si-based micro-fabrication technology because of its extreme chemical inertness, extremely hard micromachinable capability than any other materials like Si, AlN etc. Amorphous hydrogenated Silicon rich Silicon Carbide thin films grown were prepared by low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition on Si-Substrate by using a mixture of Silane and Methane as precursor and Argon as carrier gas by varying gas flow ratio, RF-power, working pressure and with a deposition temperature of 400°C. After deposition, subsequently rapid thermal annealing was carried out at 450,650, and 850 °C at vacuum level of 10-3Torr. Due to annealing, the film’s densification occurs and internal stresses are generated due which formation of cracks on the film occurs during annealing. The as-deposited and annealed SiC thin films were investigated by Optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction and Raman spectroscopy (532nm Wave length) techniques. For higher annealing temperatures, formation of short range ordering of nanocrystals (NCs) Si was observed in a:SiC-H thin films by Raman spectroscopy and GIXRD. The difference in the thermal expansion coefficient of Si and SiC has contributed to cracking of a:SiC-H thin films which was observed by optical microscopy and Scanning electron microscopy images.
Study was carried out for Morni Subwatershed in panchkula District, a part of Shivalk hills consisting highest elevation of Haryana. The aim of the study is to identify suitable water harvesting sites using RS and GIS techniques by integrating various thematic information. A very high resolution satellite data was used to carry out this research work. The sub watershed comprises of rocky surface and several types of faults and fractures. Use of remote sensing data along with GIS, topographical maps, collateral information and limited field checks, has opened new avenues and made it easier to establish the base line information for water harvesting zones. ARCGIS 10 and ERDAS IMAGINE 11 software’s were used for analysing and interpretation of remote sensing data. Based upon the specific criteria provided in the literature , about 88 water harvesting (WH) sites were identified by overlaying several maps viz. LU/LC, contour, slope, geology and geomorphology, drainage network, stream order, road network and groundwater quality. Different water conservation structures were suggested to conserve water for domestic and commercial purpose.
This research work describes about the operation of X-ray radiography System, Non-Destructive Testing Technique with two exposure times for inspection of internal structure of test material (spark plug). The spark plugs were measured with X-ray machine ANDREX 257 SMART 5A3 DIRECTIONAL at Non-Destructive Testing Laboratory. The result images were compared and indicated the exposure time (30 sec) is better than the exposure time (10 sec).
The aim of this study is to assess the organizational commitment among nursing employees of hospitals in Nepal. Nurses are the crucial human resources in health care organization and their commitment play vital role for the overall objective of the hospitals. This study is an analytical and descriptive study conducted on six hundred nurses. Using multi-stage purposive sampling, four hundred sixty five nurses were chosen as sample of the study. The research instruments were applied as demographic related questionnaire and Allen and Meyer’s modified questionnaire.
Buyback of shares has been used widely as a means of financial restructuring to maximize shareholder’s wealth. It reduces the number of outstanding shares and thus enhances Earnings per Share. As a result, price earnings ratio is also affected. The main objective of the study is to know the reason for Buy Back of Share, to analyze the Performance of Selected Ratios and to study the impact of Buy back of Share on Wealth of Share Holder. The present study examines a sample of buyback announcement made by 5 companies listed on BSE during 2011-2017. Earnings per Share have been used to analyze the impact of buyback of shares on the financial performance of the companies. Paired t-test has been used to examine these ratios before and after the buyback. The Study found that there is improvement in EPS ratio. However, the pre-buyback ratios are not statistically significantly different from the post buyback ratios at 5 % level of significance. Hence there is a significant impact on buy back on Shareholders Wealth. Thus it can be concluded that the shareholders value is not largely influenced by the buyback of shares.
Usually the bank job is considered safe and secure, but not very demanding in terms of work output. It is difficult to fire an employee for non-performance. Banking is like any other business and the staffs have to carry out multifarious activities. Some of these activities are specialist in nature. At the same time some of the activities are in no way related to banking competencies and could be outsourced. Banks need to make some institutional changes to adapt to the markets. In this study various programmes and strategies framed by the banks for attracting, hiring and retaining the employees have been discussed. Further, the role of government in this area has also been explored.
This cross sectional study was conducted among 150 conveniently selected street children in different area of Dhaka city. Face to face interview was done through semi structured questionnaire. Data analysis was done with Statistical package for social science(SPSS).The study was carried out at Kamalapur railway station, Sadarghat launch terminal, Shishu Park, Chandremauddan and Ramna Park during the period of January- March 2017.Out of 150 street children majority (66.7%) were male and 33.3 % were female. Majority (84%) of respondents informed that they used public toilet and 76% performed open air defecation. Majority (83.3%) of the respondents had a history of illness in the last 3 months. Majority of the respondent suffered from fever then dysentery, skin problems, and accidents. Health seeking behavior of the street children shows majority (68.1%) received treatment from medicine shop, 12.9% from faith-healer, 33.6% homeopathy, 11.2% from kabiraj, 28.4% from hospital, very few (8.6%) from MBBS doctor, 3.4% private clinic and 4.3% from others sources. Street children are the most marginalized, neglected part of society with very negligible access to health care and lack of awareness on available health services.
The correct budget allocation for road maintenance, which represents a significant infrastructure investment in urban roads, requires the accurate prediction of the deterioration of bituminous hot mix asphalt (HMA). In this study, three different deterioration models have been developed that can predict the future performance of pavements in highway roads. First, the current condition of the pavements was measured by using the pavement condition index (PCI), which is approved by the PAVER system. Then, three different models were developed to predict deterioration in the PCI as a function of pavement age, and applied to urban road networks in Samsun (Turkey). The models used were deterministic regression analysis, multivariate adaptive regression SP-lines (MARS) and artificial neural networks (ANN). Certain live project work was doing on Rehabilitation and upgrading of NH-18 (New NH-40) from Km 18/350 to Km 56/000 (Chittoor to Kurnool Road section) to two lane with paved shoulders in the state of Andhra Pradesh under corridor approach through Engineering, procurement & construction (EPC) Basis contract.
In this rapid era of globalization, education plays a very important role in each and every class of society irrespective of their class, creed or religion. India has undergone significant rise in educational expansion in recent years. However, certain socially excluded groups such as Schedule Caste, Schedule Tribe, Muslims, girls and women and children with disabilities face discrimination in many aspects, which leads to social inequalities. This article explores the issues, dimensions and challenges related to social exclusion from education particularly the children coming from disadvantaged groups. In addition, it has also focused on the policies implementation to get rid of these educational inequalities. Therefore, it has required actions and steps to make education available to all groups of the society that will remove social inequalities from the education system and promote social inclusion and social cohesion.
Purpose of the present study was to investigate the predicting role of parental discipline and harsh punishment of delinquent tendencies among adolescents, a pilot study was conducted conveniently drawn sample of (N = 100, girls = 50 and boys = 50); to pretest instrument, find reliability, psychometric properties of scale (parental discipline and harsh punishment) translated for this study and trends of data. The second phase of this study was comprised of the main study to achieve main objectives of study sample of (N = 430, boys = 213 and girls = 216) from schools of three cities Sargodha, Kharian, and Bhalwal. Parental discipline and harsh punishment were measured by using Parental Discipline and Harsh Punishment Scale  and delinquent tendencies were measured using Self Reported Delinquency Scale . The results indicate Parental discipline and harsh punishment are predictors of delinquent tendencies.
This paper acknowledged the important role of modern technology in the agriculture sector in developing countries such as India for overall economic growth. Technological change has been the major driving force for increasing agricultural productivity and promoting agriculture development in all developing countries. In the past, the choice of technologies and their adoption was to increase production, productivity and farm incomes. Over many decades, policies for agriculture, trade, research and development, education, training and advice have been strong influences on the choice of technology, the level of agricultural production and farm practices. It is an understood fact that the improved inputs and modern machinery are important determinants of agricultural output, yet it is important to quantify the relationship. Study also concludes that improved seeds, water availability, number of tube-wells and labor employed in the agriculture sector are positively related to agricultural output. The paper also recommends the provision of credit facilities to farmers, extension services, price stabilization and making agriculture a priority etc. to ensure that the sector takes its rightful place in our economy.
Natural language processing employs computational techniques for the purpose of learning, understanding, and producing human language content. Early computational approaches to language research focused on automating the analysis of the linguistic structure of language and developing basic technologies such as machine translation, speech recognition, and speech synthesis.
India being an agro based economy with the second highest farm output in the world needs more sustainable growth in this area. The public private partnership is one step towards attaining holistic growth. The government alone is not the answer to everything; the need is more than the capital investment. This paper is an effort to propose the possibilities of PPP in the field of Livestock. The livestock population has increased enormously, while public sector funding to the veterinary services is not adequate as per the need, then, livestock support services has been suffering a lot. To meet this inadequacy, emphasis in recent years has been shifted over to decentralize veterinary services, cost recovery, withdrawal of selected services and contractual services and encouraging Public-Private-Partnership model for veterinary services. The roles and responsibilities of national Veterinary Services are continuing to expand, triggered by multiple global trends, including: the increased demand for animal protein, the (re-) emergence of zoonotic pathogens and public health risks such as antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals provide an opportunity for Veterinary Services to contribute to the achievement of these goals. Together, these pressures exert an unprecedented responsibility on the veterinary profession to ensure a safer and healthier global community. Hindered by the scarcity of resources and capacities within the public or private spheres of Veterinary Services, Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) offer a tangible and timely solution to address this complex environment and fulfill societal demands.
The world of today is marred by the race to materialism and satisfying ones need for materialistic pleasures. The world is shrink inking and the understanding and empathy for other human beings is also shrinking. All these lead to dissatisfaction and conflict within the man and its surroundings. In this scenario it becomes imperative that the ways and means to reduce this conflicts be evolved peace education and strategies to inculcate peace is the need of the hour .In present scenario, the entire world is running behind the materialistic living and self-satisfaction of modern needs irrespective of thinking about the social world and society where they exist, and it has made the living more complex and miserable. With the passage of time, they realize the importance of peace in their life and within them. People, no wonder, are living only for self happiness which comes from peace but they are unaware of it and busy in satisfying it from materialistic needs. Peace is nothing but the state of soul consciousness in which lies the true happiness of human beings. Peace itself have an immense importance in world even it has been expressed in Vedas also that state of peace in human life and its importance. Human are required to understand the importance of peace in their living but many of the people are unaware of peace actually is irrelevant of understanding peace they are running behind other unimportant things. For this purpose peace education is required. and the role of youth in peace is of utmost importance . At our nation today needs is the power of youth. Young politicians need not have a political background. They need to have zeal and desire to serve the nation. The world is in deep need of such people who hold the fervor of leading a nation or doing good deeds.. According to the latest studies, young people are the ones who are aware of latest things, about which the old people may not be aware of. The old saying, “slow and steady wins the race,” has been replaced by, “fast and competent wins the race.” Hence on the basis of review from numerous studies present paper would highlight strategies to highlight role of youth in building peaceful nation and empowering them in this process through education. Moreover paper would stress on dimensions of curriculum which could strengthen youth in their journey towards peace.
This study is an attempt to study the broad patterns of social stratification prevailing in district Pulwama. As a complex social phenomenon, social stratification which refers to the division of the society into various hierarchical strata is as old as human civilization, while many have talked about a ‘classless’ societies of either the past or the future, but these ideas found very little support in historical experience. Though the phenomenon is common to all societies but its nature and forms vary from society to society, and from culture to culture.
When we refer to ‘curriculum innovation ‘we are referring to the ways in which many factors may contribute to transformations in classroom activity. Curriculum innovation is what happens in schools when policy, research and practice are seen as a triangular framework for reconsidering and renewing curriculum design and related classroom practices. There are already some shifts underway in current educational thinking and policymaking which will contribute to innovations in the curriculum and teaching practice. Teachers should be received specialized training, have higher education workers of professional quality. In order to develop the high quality teacher, teacher training curriculum should focus on professional skills. Our school has to strengthen the professional skills of teachers as a breakthrough in curriculum mode innovation, by enhancing practice teaching in the curriculum, strengthen the ethical culture and teaching ability training to innovate the teacher training mode. Increase the proportion of teacher education practice courses, outstanding teachers “professionalization”; strengthening teachers’ professional skills training, outstanding teaching “practicality”; making full use of modern educational technology features, outstanding service a “technicality” for skills training; providing students with a comprehensive range of technical services, outstanding training “autonomy” and other means to have achieved remarkable results. Development and changes in education have affected teacher education necessitating review and reforms. It demands understanding with investigative minds, assimilating the required transformations, accommodating and responding to the universal needs. We also need to train teachers with new perspectives as the outer world is in the classroom and schools are opening to the world. The pre-service and in-service teacher education programs have shown paradigm shift with its emphasis on globalization and individualization. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the need of teacher education program to be innovative and various practices that can be included.