The last few years has seen numerous studies pointing to the IEC61850 as a worthwhile international standard for substation automation systems. The standard incorporates the use of logical nodes to resolve problems related to interoperability and interchangeability in multi-vendor zone substation systems. The standard also initiated a cost-effective Generic Object Oriented Substation Event (GOOSE) messaging technology to replace the traditional copper wiring. This paper provides a synopsis of communication protocols and their development over the time. The authors elucidate core elements of telemetry communications, structures of protocols and the significance of standards for communication protocols within substation automation systems. This paper aims to endorse and publicise the IEC61850 protocol as the latest and improved communication standard opposed to other substation protocols like DNP and Modbus.
Puducherry, is a small Union Territory of India, located along the southern east coast of India with coastline of 45 km. This coastline is being used for nesting of sea turtles, especially Olive Ridley and Green Sea turtles, but the coastline was observed as highly dynamic and rapidly changing probably due to anthropogenic pressures in the recent past. Therefore, this study aimed to detect the land use and land cover change in the recent past and its impact on the nesting beaches of sea turtles. Land use/land cover patterns between 2004 and 2015 were visually interpreted and assessed for its changes. High sporadic nesting of sea turtles was reported on the beaches of Nallavadu village before 2004 but due to significant changes in the land use of adjoining areas of the beach that resulted in decline of nesting of sea turtles. Larger portion of agricultural land adjoining to nesting beach was converted into aquaculture and built up areas that deterred more sea turtles use the beaches for nesting. Similarly, another fishing village Vanjiur where 116 hectares of agriculture land along nesting beach was converted to aquaculture and built up has resulted in decline of nesting of sea turtles. It was found that arable lands along turtle nesting beaches were shrunk due to demand from other developing sectors such as aquaculture, tourism and real estate. Therefore, we propose to declare remaining critical sea turtle nesting beaches of Pudchurry such as beaches between Nallavadu and Moorthikuppam villages, and beaches around Arasalar River, Karaikal as ‘Community or Conservation Reserves’. These community or conservation reserves should be managed with active participation of local communities for the long term conservation of sea turtles in Puducherry.
This research paper proposes a hybrid global - local algorithm –Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization (HPSO) used to solve Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) Problem. The HPSO algorithm combines the classical Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) with Gravitational Local Search Algorithm (GLSA) non -linear optimization method, present in the optimization implement in MATLAB commercial software product. The global optimizer is the PSO algorithm and a local one is GSA. The main objective is to minimize the non-linear objective function, which is the total fuel cost of thermal generating units having equality and inequality constraints. The proposed method hybrid PSO-GSA has been developed, evaluated for three thermal generating units and compared with several recently developed conventional and intelligence heuristic methods. For simulation result it has been found that the hybrid PSO-GSA is highly competitive and efficient due to its convergence characteristics.
This article presents a technique to emphasize the network complexity problem with the use of Distributed Generation (DG) with an objective of reducing real power loss and improving voltage profile in distribution system. A soft computing Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to randomly and identify the optimal locations of candidate bus for installation of DG units in a radial distribution network. Sensitivity analysis is integrated to identify and pick up sensitive nodes for installation of DG units at optimal locations. Method of DG placement and base case of radial distribution network are considered to study the performance of the present method. The constraints of voltage and branch current carrying capacity are included in the evaluation of the objective function. The proposed technique has been applied on 33-bus and 69-bus radial distribution systems at three different load levels to demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Start-Ups have played and continue to play an important role in the growth, development and industrialization of many economics. The prime minister of India Shree Narendra Modi launched his full action plan on ‘Start-Up India, Stand Up India’ on January 16th 2016 to turn the youth from job-seekers to job-creators.
The economy of India is seventh largest in the world by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity and the international businesses communities accepts India as one of the most attractive destination for investment. As per the NASSCOM report, India stands in the third position with 4200 new age companies among the global start-ups eco system.
Indian start-ups is a start-up ecosystem bringing together entrepreneur ,investors and partners throughout India and across the globe to help nurture, nourish and empower new growing start-ups.
The objective of the study is to determine the constraints faced by the start-ups companies and to suggest mechanism for encouraging Start up and improving their survival rates. As with any central government initiative, the success of program lies in its ability to percolate its benefits to intended beneficiaries and also ensures its implementation at the grass roots.
Voltage sags are responsible for nuisance process trips in modern automated industrial facilities, thereby resulting huge financial losses to customers. Therefore, both utility as well as customers are having greater concerns for the improvement in power quality. Electrical utilities are aware that any level of customer voltage sag quality is achievable through the use of mitigation devices such as dynamic voltage restorers (DVR) and UPS. However, at some point the costs cannot be economically justified and must be balanced with the needs of end-users and the value of the service to them. Therefore, options for improving the voltage sag performance of the supply system should be considered for these facilities based on traditional engineering economic principles. Chemical manufacturing process is very vulnerable to voltage sags. This paper describes the importance of the voltage sag problem in such plant and possible mitigation methods. In this paper a cost comparison of voltage sag mitigation method is described.
Extensive use of mobile communication-based handsets and gadgets is increasing day by day due to increase in a number of mobile users. Mobile communication based RF cellular networks are bandwidth limited and already overcrowded leading to frequent call drops. To overcome the bottleneck in mobile communication, different technologies can be used. Visible Light Communication is one such technology which can turn out to be a viable option in this scenario. It uses the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum which is 10000 times broader than the RF spectrum. Limitation faced in RF system such as bandwidth inefficiency, health & security issues can be avoided with this technology .VLC uses Li-Fi in which light is used as a carrier for carrying information contrary to RF signal used in Wi-Fi. This paper extensively presents an overview of working, application and challenges for VLC and LiFi.
Digital images are all around us-from our mobile phones to the pages of online websites. Digital images are used in almost every field whether it is information forensic, journalism, criminal and forensic investigations or medical fields and many more. Because of the large availability and popularity of user-friendly image editing tools and software it become easy to alter the images but such modified images pose some serious dangers or problems in some fields where the genuineness of image has a prime important and in such fields it become very difficult to verify the authenticity and probity of digital images. Digital image forgery is the process of tampering contents of an image that is changing the meaning of image without leaving any detectable clues. In this paper, we present a review of various types of digital image forgery and forgery detection techniques.
An attractive feature for future optical networks is the ability to process information entirely in the optical domain for the purpose of amplification, multiplexing, de-multiplexing, switching, filtering, and correlation. In such networks, all signals processed in the optical domain, without any form of electrical manipulation. Advances in technology have enabled more data to be conveyed through a single optical fiber over long distances.
Today in this digital world image fusion is the most emerging field in the area of image processing. Image fusion is a technique that integrates complementary information from multiple images such that the fused image is more suitable for processing task. Its main objective of image fusion is enhancing the visibility of image and improving the spatial resolution and spectral information of an original image. This paper start with the study of initial concepts of image fusion and different technique of image fusion, then implement the wavelet based image fusion using soft computing. In this paper I have consider four wavelet families that is haar, daubechies, symlets, coiflets at all the level (level1, level2, level3, level4.level5) and analysis that which families provide the maximum information after the fusion. The fused image is assessed using Entropy, Standard deviation and Mean.