Renewable energy sources are fast growing. The diminishing fossil-fuel reserves and increasing energy demand makes it mandatory to look forward towards the new ways of energy generation. This paper deals with the feasibility analysis of the grid connected rooftop based solar photovoltaic system by studying the basic renewable integrated grid connected system. This paper describes the major components of solar photovoltaic system that are required to be connected in a grid integrated system and includes the site selection, solar panel arrangement, annual energy calculations and depreciation cost calculations for each year among the life span of the project and per unit capital cost calculations. Total cost incurred as well as income from the plant is calculated because energy can be sold to the grid at the time of low power demand at the site. A detailed cost analysis is conducted to know whether setting up the solar power plant is economically feasible or not. In this paper main emphasis is placed on the photovoltaic system, calculation of the payback period and then checking the feasibility of the solar photovoltaic power plant.
The development of watershed aims at productive utilization of all the available natural resources in the entire area extending from ridge line to stream outlet. Remote sensing and GIS techniques are being increasingly used for planning, management and development of watersheds. In the present study, an attempt has been made to calculate the Climatic Water Deficit (CWD) of Morni Sub-watershed. To attained this, Crop Evapotranspiration (ETc) was calculated followed by reference evapotranspiration (ETo) by using the Hargreaves formulae. Climatic water deficit (CWD) was determined as the difference between effective rainfall and ETc by assessing all raster data in ARCGIS 10. In this respect monthly and annual temperature (minimum & maximum) for a period of 42 years (1954-1996) and available rainfall data of 102 year (1901-2002) was used. It was found from Digital elevation model that topography of the study area is very undulating.
Numerous efforts `have been made over the past years to develop automated procedures for preparation of land use maps from remotely sensed multispectral data. Despite best efforts, the situation is still one where there is a considerable gap between the needs and availability due to newer data with higher spectral and spatial resolution. In this study, we used both supervised and unsupervised technique to classify Indian Remote sensing (IRS P6) LISS IV satellite imagery of Jaipur city (13 October 2008) by multi model criteria to achieve comparative analysis of Simple, Fuzzy logic and ANN type of classification to identifying, their efficacy with regard to differences in spectral and spatial resolutions. The performance of different classification method was evaluated in terms of accuracy. It was found that LISS IV datasets can be classified up to level 3 of land use/land cover classes of NRSC. The results obtained by comparative analysis are in terms of accuracy and simple classification technique achieves 88 per cent accuracy, Fuzzy classification technique achieves 89.26 per cent accuracy, and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System technique achieves 95.04 per cent accuracy. It can be concluded that objects based approach of classification is better than pixel based classification to classify surface water bodies and Built Up and Roads. In Fuzzy Classification, beside accuracy is lower than ANN classification but separability of each class is better than other classification method. Further improvements need to be done to use a combination of classification techniques to develop automated procedures for preparation of land use maps from remotely sensed multispectral data.
The harmony or balance between human and environment is the essential requirements of healthy life. Maintenance of ecological balance and preservation of pristine environment are paramount important for any industrial establishment. Measures should be taken to balance each side. A well defined environment management policy and sound environment practices are the key measures to minimize the environmental impact on the surrounding human settlement as well as the bio-sphere. The impact of NTPC in Banarpal area of Angul district of Odisha state and its surrounding can be well monitored through the Geo-Spatial technology. Satellite images of different resolution are the main sources on which different thematic layers have been generated through digital image analysis and GIS applications. Growth of built-up area, changes in vegetation cover and surface water, increase of mining activities are some of the key factors through which the impact of environment can be well monitored. Generation of various thematic layers for environmental analysis as well as Land use/Land cover changes around 10 k.ms radius of NTPC Thermal power plant is the prime objective of the study. The study is conducted for the two period of time frame i.e. for the year 1995 and 2010. It is observed that the Dense forest cover is reduced from 507.84ha (1995) to 327.89ha (2010) that resulted in the low precipitation in the Talcher region and continuous increase in the temperature. Mining area is estimated at 1721.12ha in 1995 which is increased to 2140.43ha in 2010 which causes negative impact on the ecological balance of the region. Deforestation is a continuous phenomenon as Tree clad area reduced to only 383.91ha (2010) as compared to 531.7ha in 1995. Therefore it is observed that quick and effective measures must be taken to combat the growing environmental degradation and reduce the environmental impact on its surroundings areas through ameiolarative measures like plantation ,treatment of abandoned mining areas,sewrage treatment, ash water recycling ,land reclamation, etc.
In the field of instrumentation, simulations of various controllers are done by using various softwares such as MATLAB/Simulink & LabVIEW etc. Due to fast developments in technology, the choice of hardware and software should be considered carefully along with cost. It is a fact that the cost of designing new instrumentation can be decreased significantly if displays are modeled in software rather than in hardware components. A number of interactive computer delivered simulations, control, scientific visualizations software solutions are available which uses diverse software such as LabVIEW, MATLAB/SIMULINK etc. The main aim is to model multimachine system with STATCOM & UPFC controllers in Simulink/MATLAB which is very much closer to the actual physical system and analyze their response using MATLAB/Simulink. The simulated STATCOM & UPFC shows how the oscillations are damped out with STATCOM & UPFC controller. Change in the value of various parameters of the STATCOM & UPFC controller affects the stability of the system
Raman amplification mechanism in optical fibers is of great importance. In multiple wavelength telecom system, Raman amplification offers the ability to achieve gain flatness without inserting any wavelength-dependent lossy elements. The setup consist of 4 channel DWDM with varying wavelengths of optical fiber from 1530 nm to 1560 nm and by changing the noise for each amplifier to achieve the quality factor and noise figure of both the amplifiers. In this article, we used the frequency spacing of 2 GHz of the DWDM system and at different lengths i.e. for Raman is 22 m at 50 Km distance. In this method, for Raman amplifier, we get the maximum Quality Factor at 1545 nm of wavelength.
A minimum spanning tree (MST) of a connected, undirected and weighted network is a tree of that network consisting of all its nodes and the sum of weights of all its edges is minimum among all such possible spanning trees of the same network. In this study, we have developed a new GIS tool using most commonly known rudimentary algorithm called Prim’s algorithm to construct the minimum spanning tree of a connected, undirected and weighted road network. This algorithm is based on the weight (adjacency) matrix of a weighted network and helps to solve complex network MST problem easily, efficiently and effectively. The selection of the appropriate algorithm is very essential otherwise it will be very hard to get an optimal result. In case of Road Transportation Network, it is very essential to find the optimal results by considering all the necessary points based on cost factor (time or distance). This paper is based on solving the Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) problem of a road network by finding it’s minimum span by considering all the important network junction point. GIS technology is usually used to solve the network related problems like the optimal path problem, travelling salesman problem, vehicle routing problems, location-allocation problems etc. Therefore, in this study we have developed a customized GIS tool using Python script in ArcGIS software for the solution of MST problem for a Road Transportation Network of Dehradun city by considering distance and time as the impedance (cost) factors. It has a number of advantages like the users do not need a greater knowledge of the subject as the tool is user-friendly and that allows to access information varied and adapted the needs of the users. This GIS tool for MST can be applied for a nationwide plan called Prime Minister Gram Sadak Yojana in India to provide optimal all weather road connectivity to unconnected villages (points). This tool is also useful for constructing highways or railways spanning several cities optimally or connecting all cities with minimum total road length.
Parrondo gave his Paradox in 1999 in discrete dynamics, and showed that the periodic lternation of two losing games can result in winning game by combining different dynamics. Individually, these dynamics are chaotic but after alternation they are ordered. The logistic map f (x) = r x (1 - x) shows various forms by choosing x between 0 and 1 and 0 < r ≤ 18 or more in superior orbit. The logistic map is a population growth model. In this paper, we analyze the stability of the superior logistic map, and study the dynamics of alternated logistic maps in superior orbit. It has been found that for higher values of r the periodic alternation of two discrete dynamical systems are ordered whereas individually they are chaotic.
The study area falls in Ramannapet Mandal, Nalgonda district in Telangana state covering an area of 228.28 Sq.km.The entire area is falling under Musi river basin drainage system. Morphometric analysis is carried out using IRS P6-LISS IV Satellite imagery (2013) and thematic layer preparedby using GIS software. Morphometric analysis is important in any hydrological investigation and it is inevitable in development and management of drainage basin. The development of morphometric techniques was a major advance in the qualitative and quantitative description of the geometry of the drainage basins and its network which helps in characterizing the drainage network. The geomorphological properties which are important from the hydrological studies point of view include the linear, aerial and relief aspect of the watersheds. In the present study a morphometric analysis of Ramannapet drainage area has been carried out using remote sensing and geospatial techniques in GIS. This technique is found relevant for the extraction of river basin and its drainage network. The extracted drainage network was classified according to Strahler’s system of classification and it reveals that the terrain exhibits dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage pattern. Morphometric analysis shows that the river is of fifth-order and the basin contains 246 total number of streams. The various linear parameters (Stream order, Stream number, Stream length, stream length ratio, Bifurcation ratio, Drainage density, Texture ratio, Stream frequency) and shape factors (Compactness coefficient, Circularity ratio, Elongation ratio, Form factor) of the drainage area were computed. Hence, it is concluded that GIS techniques proved to be a competent tool in morphometric analysis.
Mahabubnagar district of Telangana state is the largest one geographically which is vulnerable to drought with scanty and erratic rainfall and a hot climate. It consists of 64 mandals with 1,558 villages. The canal command area is restricted to around 4.5 % of the area and the rest of the area lies in non-command areas. The ground water sources like Tube well / Bore well / Filter point wells are prominent sources for water supply in the district. Ground water plays a crucial role in agricultural, drinking and domestic needs of the people especially in non-command areas. Ground water quality changes with time and space in response to rainfall, geology, landforms, structural fabrics and developmental needs of people. Krishna and Thungabhadra are two major rivers traversing through the district. The whole district falling in Krishna river basin and consisting of 13 sub-basins like Koilsagar, Dindi , Jurala, Saralasagar, Thungabhadra, Krishna-I, Krishna-II, Srisailam, Kagna, Kothur, Alwanpally, Chinnavagu, and Amrabad. Groundwater resources have reached a very critical stage in Non-Command areas and thoughtful use, conservation and management is required.
In order to evaluate the spatial distribution of groundwater quality, Habitation wise ground water quality data for different elements like pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Hardness (TH), Total Alkalinity (TA), Fluoride (F), Chloride (Cl), Iron (Fe) Sulphate (So4) and Nitrate (No3) of Mahabubnagar district was obtained from Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Department, Govt. of Telangana. The Remote Sensing imagery with its synoptic coverage, acts as a tool for finding suitable solution in decision making. Hydrogeomorphic Maps were prepared as part of study by integrating different themes like Lithology, Landforms, Structural fabrics and hydrology layers using Remote Sensing & GIS techniques on 1:50,000 scale. An integrated Remote Sensing & GIS study has been taken up for Mahabubnagar district for studying the ground water quality evaluation and its impacts.